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Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 1992;27(3):227-81.

The structure, role, and regulation of type 1 protein phosphatases.

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Afdeling Biochemie, Fakulteit Geneeskunde, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium.


Type 1 protein phosphatases (PP-1) comprise a group of widely distributed enzymes that specifically dephosphorylate serine and threonine residues of certain phosphoproteins. They all contain an isoform of the same catalytic subunit, which has an extremely conserved primary structure. One of the properties of PP-1 that allows one to distinguish them from other serine/threonine protein phosphatases is their sensitivity to inhibition by two proteins, termed inhibitor 1 and inhibitor 2, or modulator. The latter protein can also form a 1:1 complex with the catalytic subunit that slowly inactivates upon incubation. This complex is reactivated in vitro by incubation with MgATP and protein kinase FA/GSK-3. In the cell the type 1 catalytic subunit is associated with noncatalytic subunits that determine the activity, the substrate specificity, and the subcellular location of the phosphatase. PP-1 plays an essential role in glycogen metabolism, calcium transport, muscle contraction, intracellular transport, protein synthesis, and cell division. The activity of PP-1 is regulated by hormones like insulin, glucagon, alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonists, glucocorticoids, and thyroid hormones.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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