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Mol Phylogenet Evol. 1992 Sep;1(3):169-78.

Phylogenetic relationships in the honeybee (genus Apis) as determined by the sequence of the cytochrome oxidase II region of mitochondrial DNA.

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Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada.


The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II (COII) gene was determined for five species of the honeybee (Genus: Apis): A. andreniformis, A. cerana, A. dorsata, A. florea, and A. koschevnikovi; these were then compared to the known sequence of the A. millifera gene from Crozier et al. (1989, Mol. Biol. Evol., 6: 399-411) and the wasp Excristes roborator (Liu and Beckenbach, 1992, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 1:41-52). Phylogenetic relationships were derived using the parasimony methods DNAPARS and PROTPARS of Felsenstein ("PHYLIP Manual Version 3.4, "University Herbarium, Univ. of California, Berkeley). The results suggest that A. dorsata is the most ancestral species, followed by the branching of A. florea/A. andreniformis and A. koschevnikovi, and then A. mellifera and A. cerana. This inference differs from the currently accepted view that considers the A. florea/A. andreniformis line to be the most ancestral.

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