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Ciba Found Symp. 1992;170:130-40; discussion 140-6.

Protein phosphatases and cell division cycle control.

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Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Science, Kyoto University, Japan.


Fission yeast has at least ten protein phosphatase genes that appear to play distinct roles in cell cycle control. Because of functional overlap, a clear lethal phenotype can be obtained only after multiple genetic alterations. Cells that have lost the protein phosphatase 1 (PP1)-like dis2/sds21 phosphatase activities prematurely enter mitosis and remain in a defective mitotic state with high H1 kinase activity and without sister chromatid disjunction. The same phenotype can be obtained in the presence of hydroxyurea. Overexpression of PP1-like phosphatase, on the other hand, delays the entry into mitosis. Cells that have lost PP2A-like ppa2 phosphatase activity also prematurely enter mitosis with a reduction in cell size. This semi-wee phenotype is enhanced in delta ppa2 mutants treated with the phosphatase inhibitor, okadaic acid. Genetic interactions between ppa2 and mitotic regulators suggest that ppa1/ppa2 phosphatase may directly or indirectly inhibit p34cdc2/cyclin kinase. Thus both PP1- and PP2A-like phosphatases in fission yeast may negatively regulate entry into mitosis. The major property of the dis2/sds21 mutant which is distinct from those of the ppa2/ppa1 mutant is its failure to inactivate the p34cdc2/cyclin complex after entry into mitosis. A novel phosphatase regulator encoded by sds22+ binds to dis2 phosphatase and controls the substrate specificity which appears to become essential in the progression from metaphase to anaphase.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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