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Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 1992;4(1):93-109.

The role of retinoids in normal and abnormal embryonic craniofacial morphogenesis.

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Department of Preventive Dental Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.


The objective of this article is to evaluate the role of retinoids in the developing head and face. This article covers two lines of evidence that strongly support a role for retinoids in craniofacial development. First, the specific effects of exogenous retinoids on the head and face are covered and mechanisms for the specificity discussed. Second, the function of endogenous retinoids in facial development is discussed in relation to the distribution of retinoid-binding substances in the face. Finally, the interaction of retinoids with other genes known to be expressed in the face as well as other factors required for facial growth is discussed.

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