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N Engl J Med. 1992 Oct 1;327(14):974-80.

Gastric inhibitory polypeptide-dependent cortisol hypersecretion--a new cause of Cushing's syndrome.

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Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Nutrition, Hôtel-Dieu de Montréal, Canada.



Corticotropin-independent nodular adrenal hyperplasia is a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome, and the factors responsible for the adrenal hyperplasia are not known.


We studied a 48-year-old woman with Cushing's syndrome, nodular adrenal hyperplasia, and undetectable plasma corticotropin concentrations in whom food stimulated cortisol secretion.


Cortisol secretion had an inverse diurnal rhythm in this patient, with low-to-normal fasting plasma cortisol concentrations and elevated postprandial cortisol concentrations that could not be suppressed with dexamethasone. The cortisol concentrations increased in response to oral glucose (4-fold increase) and a lipid-rich meal (4.8-fold increase) or a protein-rich meal (2.6-fold increase), but not intravenous glucose. The infusion of somatostatin blunted the plasma cortisol response to oral glucose. Intravenous infusion of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) for one hour increased the plasma cortisol concentration in the patient but not in four normal subjects. Fasting plasma GIP concentrations in the patient were similar to those in the normal subjects; feeding the patient test meals induced increases in plasma GIP concentrations that paralleled those in plasma cortisol concentrations. Cell suspensions of adrenal tissue from the patient produced more cortisol when stimulated by GIP than when stimulated by corticotropin. In contrast, adrenal cells from normal adults and fetuses or patients with cortisol-producting or aldosterone-producing adenomas responded to corticotropin but not to GIP.


Nodular adrenal hyperplasia and Cushing's syndrome may be food-dependent as a result of abnormal responsiveness of adrenal cells to physiologic secretion of GIP. "Illicit" (ectopic) expression of GIP receptors on adrenal cells presumably underlies this disorder.

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