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J Neurovirol. 2003 Oct;9(5):539-50.

Human herpesvirus type 6 indirectly enhances oligodendrocyte cell death.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.

Abstract

Accumulating evidence suggests that human herpesvirus type 6 (HHV-6) plays a pathogenic role in diseases of the central nervous system including multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent studies have indicated that HHV-6 DNA is detected with high frequency in MS lesions compared to normal-appearing white matter, implicating a role for HHV-6 in MS pathogenesis. It appears that T cells, which infiltrate into the brain in MS patients, and resident oligodendrocytes harbor HHV-6 virus in MS lesions. Because T cells infected with HHV-6 have elevated proinflammatory gene expression, we hypothesized that HHV-6 could be indirectly cytotoxic to glial cells, including oligodendrocytes. Supernatants from SupT1 cells infected with HHV-6 variant A (GS or U1102) or variant B (Z29) significantly reduced MO3.1 cell proliferation by 75% +/- 10%, 78% +/- 8% or 51% +/- 9%, respectively. HHV-6 viral supernatants (GS or U1102 or Z29) significantly increased MO3.1 or primary human oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) cell death, whereas primary human fetal astrocytes were not affected. Removal of HHV-6 virions or proteins by trypsin treatment from culture supernatants did not reverse the loss in oligodendrocyte proliferation or viability. Supernatants from HHV-6 GS or U1102 cultures were significantly more cytotoxic to MO3.1 cells or OPCs compared to supernatants from T cells infected with Z29. Dying oligodendrocytes did not have an apoptotic-like phenotype and toxicity was not inhibited by general inhibitor of apoptosis, ZVAD. Further, oligodendrocytes had minimal caspase-3 activation even in the presence of staurosporine, suggesting that cell death followed caspase-independent pathways. These results indicate that HHV-6 is indirectly cytotoxic to oligodendrocytes and that cell death is driven primarily by caspase-independent pathways.

PMID:
13129768
DOI:
10.1080/13550280390241241
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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