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Gene. 1992 Feb 1;111(1):109-14.

New tools for the physical and genetic mapping of Lactococcus strains.

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Centre de Recherche de Biochimie et de Génétique Cellulaires du CNRS, Toulouse, France.


Tools for the genetic and physical analysis of the Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis genome were developed. Plasmid pRC1 does not replicate in Gram+ bacteria; it contains unique ApaI, NotI and SmaI restriction sites and an erythromycin-resistance (ErR) encoding gene, ermAM, functional in L. lactis subsp. lactis. When a chromosomal L. lactis subsp. lactis DNA fragment was cloned into this vector, the resulting plasmid became integrated, after transformation, into the bacterial chromosome by homologous recombination in a Campbell-like manner. The integration lead to the generation of new rare restriction sites near to the host fragment. This procedure allows precise mapping of cloned genes onto the chromosomal restriction map. The mapping of the his operon of L. lactis subsp. lactis provides an illustration. The cloning into pRC1 of an IS element able to transpose into the chromosome of the target cell, gave rise to an integration plasmid able to insert randomly rare restriction sites onto the bacterial chromosome. The L. lactis IS element, ISS1RS, was cloned into pRC1, yielding pRL1. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of ErR clones obtained after transformation with pRL1, showed that this plasmid was stably integrated at a number of different sites in the L. lactis subsp. lactis chromosome, via transposition. Plasmids pRC1 and pRL1 can greatly facilitate the construction of the physical and genetic map of the chromosome of lactococcal strains.

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