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J Biol Chem. 1977 Jan 10;252(1):20-31.

Purification and properties of 3-keto-5-aminohexanoate cleavage enzyme from a lysine-fermenting Clostridium.


The lysine-fermenting Clostridium SB4 is shown to contain a new type of beta-keto acid-degrading enzyme that converts 3-keto-5-aminohexanoate and acetyl-CoA reversibly to L-3-aminobutyryl-CoA and acetoacetate. Following the development of a sensitive radiochemical assay the enzyme was purified 175-fold to about 90% homogeneity in 44% yield. The specific activity of the purified enzyme is 44 IU/mg of protein at 30 degrees. The equilibrium constant for the forward reaction was found to be 0.68 at 30 degrees and pH 7.0, corresponding to a deltaG0' of 0.23 kcal/mol. The enzyme is highly substrate-specific. Of several substrate analogs tested in the forward and back reactions only beta-alanyl-CoA and D-3-aminobutyryl-CoA are utilized about 130% and 1.7% as fast as L-3-aminobutyryl-CoA, respectively. The product formed from beta-alanyl-CoA and acetoacetate is a neutral beta-keto acid, presumably 3-keto-5-aminopentanoic acid; its borohydride reduction product was partially characterized as a hydroxy-amino acid by various chromatographic and ion exchange methods. The activity of the purified enzyme is increased about 5-fold by addition of 0.1 mM Co2+ and to a lesser extent by Mn2+. Activity is inhibited by orthophosphate, thiol reagents, and EDTA; however, exposure of the enzyme to the latter compound prior to addition of Co2+ increases activity, presumably by removing competing divalent cations. Tracer experiments have shown that carbon atoms 1 and 2 of acetoacetate are derived from carbon atoms 1 and 2 of 3-keto-5-aminohexanoate whereas carbon atoms 3 and 4 are derived from acetyl-CoA. The amino acid moiety of 3-aminobutyryl-CoA is derived from carbon atoms 3 to 6 of 3-keto-5-aminohexanoate. Since no evidence for covalent enzyme-substrate intermediates could be obtained by the study of four possible group exchange reactions, a concerted reaction between 3-keto-5-aminohexanoate and acetyl-CoA is considered. The enzyme has a molecular weight of about 97,000 and probably contains four identical subunits. The relatively high specific activity of the enzyme in extracts of Clostridium SB4 indicates it functions in the main pathway of lysine degradation. This relatively stable enzyme provides a convenient and specific method for the quantitative estimation of nanomolar amounts of L- and D-3-aminobutyryl-CoA and beta-alanyl-CoA.

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