Send to

Choose Destination
Hum Mol Genet. 1992 Nov;1(8):571-8.

Methylation analysis of CGG sites in the CpG island of the human FMR1 gene.

Author information

Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle 98195.


The fragile-X syndrome of mental retardation is associated with an expansion in the number of CGG repeats present in the FMR1 gene. The repeat region is within sequences characteristic of a CpG island. Methylation of CpG dinucleotides that are 5' to the CGG repeat has been shown to occur on the inactive X chromosome of normal females and on the X chromosome of affected fragile-X males, and is correlated with silencing of the FMR1 gene. The methylation status of CpG sites 3' to the repeat and within the repeat itself has not previously been reported. We have used two methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes, AciI and Fnu4HI, to further characterize the methylation pattern of the FMR1 CpG island in normal individuals and in those carrying fragile-X mutations. Our results indicate that: (i) CpG dinucleotides on the 3' side of the CGG repeat are part of the CpG island that is methylated during inactivation of a normal X chromosome in females; (ii) the CGG repeats are also part of the CpG island and are extensively methylated as a result of normal X-chromosome inactivation; (iii) similar to normal males, unaffected fragile-X males with small CGG expansions are unmethylated in the CpG island; for affected males, the patterns of methylation are similar to those of a normal, inactive X chromosome; (iv) in contrast to the partial methylation observed for certain sites in lymphocyte DNA, complete methylation was observed in DNA from cell lines containing either a normal inactive X chromosome or a fragile-X chromosome from an affected male.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Silverchair Information Systems
Loading ...
Support Center