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Qual Life Res. 1992 Dec;1(6):397-413.

Assessing the needs and quality of life of patients with HIV infection: development of the HIV Overview of Problems-Evaluation System (HOPES).

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Department of Medicine, UCLA School of Medicine.



To develop and evaluate the psychometric properties (reliability, validity etc.) of a comprehensive Quality of Life (QOL) tool, for patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), that was adapted from a previously validated cancer tool.


Cross-sectional, patient completed written surveys and interviews.


The Medical Centers serving HIV infected patients in the Los Angeles community including UCLA, community physicians, Veterans Affairs Medical Centers, and a County hospital: and additional data contributed from Johns Hopkins University Medical Center CMV Retinitis Clinic.


Patients (n = 318) with HIV infection including asymptomatic (37%), ARC (20%), AIDS (25%) and AIDS with Cancer (18%) receiving health services at one of the above sites.


The patients self-administered the newly developed instrument, the HOPES (HIV Overview of Problems-Evaluation System), other QOL related tools including the Medical Outcomes Study instrument adapted for HIV (MOS-HIV) the Profile of Mood States (POMS), the Perceived Adjustment to Chronic Illness Scale (PACIS), and the Physical Activity Scale (PAS). Brief interview to assess the Karnofsky Performance Status Score (KPS). Measured sociodemographic characteristics included age, sex, race, HIV risk factor, education etc. Assessed medical history, current medications, HIV clinical classification.


The sociodemographic and medical characteristics of the sample resemble those of the general population with HIV infection in this geographic area: 96% male, 28% nonwhite, 84% homosexual contact as risk factor, 75% receiving antiretroviral therapy. The adaptation of the cancer QOL instrument to HIV appears to have face and content validity according to patients and health professionals who care for HIV infected patients. Analyses of the psychometric properties found that the HOPES has a similar structure to its parent instrument following factor analyses which results in five summary scales representing the Physical, Psychosocial, Medical Interaction, Sexual and Significant Other/Partners domains in addition to a Global Score. Internal consistency of 35 subscales is high with a mean alpha coefficient of 0.82. Correlations of the HOPES summary scales with other QOL instruments are in the predicted directions. Comparing patients within the HIV clinical diagnostic categories on the HOPES Global, Physical, and Psychosocial Summary Scales indicates that Asymptomatic Patients have better QOL than symptomatic patients. This finding is also found in the other QOL instruments which provides evidence of construct validity.


The HOPES is an excellent tool for identifying the problems and needs of patients with HIV infection and for assessing their quality of life. It is reliable, valid and acceptable to patients. The tool may be especially useful in developing a normative data base.

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