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Nat Rev Immunol. 2003 Aug;3(8):609-20.

Co-stimulatory members of the TNFR family: keys to effective T-cell immunity?

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Division of Molecular Immunology, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, San Diego, California 92121, USA.


Interactions between co-stimulatory ligands and their receptors are crucial for the activation of T cells, the prevention of tolerance and the development of T-cell immunity. It is now evident that members of the immunoglobulin-like CD28-B7 co-stimulatory family cannot fully account for an effective long-lasting T-cell response or the generation of memory T cells. Several members of the tumour-necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily--OX40, 4-1BB, CD27, CD30 and HVEM (herpes-virus entry mediator)--are poised to deliver co-stimulatory signals both early and late after encounter with antigen. The roles of these molecules in initiating and sustaining the T-cell response and in promoting long-lived immunity are discussed.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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