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Dev Cell. 2003 Sep;5(3):367-77.

A second canon. Functions and mechanisms of beta-catenin-independent Wnt signaling.

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  • 1Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Pharmacology, Center for Developmental Biology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98195, USA.


More is becoming known about so-called noncanonical Wnt pathways that signal independently of beta-catenin. Here we review recent developments in both the functions and mechanisms of noncanonical Wnt signaling. We also discuss some unresolved and vexing questions. How many noncanonical Wnt pathways are there? How extensive are the parallels between Drosophila planar polarization and vertebrate convergence and extension? Last, we will outline some challenges and difficulties we foresee for this exciting but still very young field.

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