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Traffic. 2003 Oct;4(10):653-9.

Tying everything together: the multiple roles of cysteine string protein (CSP) in regulated exocytosis.

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The Physiological Laboratory, Department of Physiology, University of Liverpool, Crown St, Liverpool, L69 3BX, UK.


In addition to the core vesicle fusion machinery, the SNARE proteins, a large number of regulatory proteins have been implicated in the process of Ca2+-dependent exocytosis. How these exocytotic proteins are properly targeted and how their myriad interactions are temporally and spatially coordinated is poorly understood. Cysteine string protein (CSP), a secretory vesicle membrane protein and a member of the dnaJ family of co-chaperones, may assist in performing this function. Through its interaction with the ubiquitous chaperone, Hsc70, it is thought that cysteine string protein targets chaperone complexes to the exocytotic machinery to facilitate the correct folding of polypeptides or to regulate the assembly of protein complexes. Since its discovery, there have been conflicting reports from different systems concerned with whether cysteine string protein exerts its effects on exocytosis either up- or down-stream of Ca2+-influx. In this review, we summarize recent experiments that associate cysteine string protein with the regulation of vesicle filling, vesicle docking, Ca2+-channels and the SNARE proteins themselves, hence supporting a role for cysteine string protein as a multifunctional secretory co-chaperone. In addition, we provide an update on the mammalian isoforms of cysteine string protein following the recent discovery of two novel cysteine string proteins.

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