Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Theor Appl Genet. 2003 Nov;107(8):1463-8. Epub 2003 Sep 3.

Puroindoline A-gene expression is involved in association of puroindolines to starch.

Author information

  • 1Zootechnical Sciences and Food Inspection Department, University of Naples Federico II, Via Universit√† 133, Portici, 80055, Naples, Italy.


Puroindolines largely influence cereal grain hardness. In order to understand how they exert this influence, we carried out a molecular analysis of the pina and pinb genes of many Italian wheat cultivars. On the basis of their pin genotypes they could be divided into three groups: Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1a; Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1b; and Pina-D1b/Pinb-D1a. Five cultivars from each group were chosen to be studied to examine the quantity of puroindolines associated with starch (friabilin) and the amount not associated with starch. In addition, the level of pina expression was measured using RT-PCR. Soft cultivars ( Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1a) exhibited the highest level of expression of pina; among the hard cultivars, those with the Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1b genotype showed a lower level of expression, while those with the Pina-D1b/Pinb-D1a genotype did not express pina. Total puroindoline and friabilin content was then measured by flow cytometry. Soft Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1a cultivars displayed high puroindoline content that was primarily starch associated. Hard Pina-D1b/Pinb-D1a cultivars had very low puroindoline content with no puroindoline bound to starch. Hard Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1b cultivars were highly heterogeneous with respect to both the content of puroindolines and the level of association with starch. The accurate quantification of puroindolines in starch-bound and not starch-bound forms in association with molecular analysis, indicates that pina expression and presence controls the abundance of total puroindoline and its association with starch.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

LinkOut - more resources

Full Text Sources

Other Literature Sources

PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Springer
    Loading ...
    Support Center