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Hum Brain Mapp. 2003 Sep;20(1):22-8.

Brain activations during conscious self-monitoring of speech production with delayed auditory feedback: an fMRI study.

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Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Tokyo, Japan.


When a speaker's voice returns to one's own ears with a 200-ms delay, the delay causes the speaker to speak less fluently. This phenomenon is called a delayed auditory feedback (DAF) effect. To investigate neural mechanisms of speech processing through the DAF effect, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, in which we designed a paradigm to explore the conscious overt-speech processing and the automatic overt-speech processing separately, while reducing articulatory motion artifacts. The subjects were instructed to (1) read aloud visually presented sentences under real-time auditory feedback (NORMAL), (2) read aloud rapidly under real-time auditory feedback (FAST), (3) read aloud slowly under real-time auditory feedback (SLOW), and (4) read aloud under DAF (DELAY). In the contrasts of DELAY-NORMAL, DELAY-FAST, and DELAY-SLOW, the bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG), the supramarginal gyrus (SMG), and the middle temporal gyrus (MTG) showed significant activation. Moreover, we found that the STG activation was correlated with the degree of DAF effect for all subjects. Because the temporo-parietal regions did not show significant activation in the comparisons among NORMAL, FAST, and SLOW conditions, we can exclude the possibility that its activation is due to speech rates or enhanced attention to altered speech sounds. These results suggest that the temporo-parietal regions function as a conscious self-monitoring system to support an automatic speech production system.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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