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A review of the biological bases of ADHD: what have we learned from imaging studies?

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Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands.


Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common and impairing neuropsychiatric disorder with onset at preschool age. Although a significant amount of progress has been made investigating the neurobiology of this disorder, its precise etiology still remains unclear. Converging evidence from studies of the neuropharmacology, genetics, neuropsychology, and neuroimaging of ADHD imply the involvement of fronto-striatal circuitry in ADHD. However, while it does appear that poor inhibitory control and the deficits in fronto-striatal circuitry associated with it are central, there is evidence to suggest that more posterior cerebral areas are also implicated in this disorder. Anatomical studies suggest widespread reductions in volume throughout the cerebrum and cerebellum, while functional imaging studies suggest that affected individuals activate more diffuse areas than controls during the performance of cognitive tasks. The future impact of new MR imaging methodologies on the field is discussed.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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