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Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2003 Aug;61(2):93-101.

Increased concentration of pentosidine, an advanced glycation end product, and interleukin-6 in the vitreous of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

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First Department of Internal Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kawaramachi-Hirokoji, Kamikyo-ku, Kyoto 602-0841, Japan.


To investigate the relationship between advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the development of diabetic retinopathy, we determined the concentrations of pentosidine, a well-characterized AGE, and IL-6 in the vitreous of 62 patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and 50 non-diabetic control subjects. We also investigated the effect of AGEs on the production of IL-6 by human retinal Müller cells. The levels of pentosidine and IL-6 in the vitreous of patients with PDR were significantly higher compared with controls. In patients with PDR with vitreous hemorrhage (VH), the mean vitreous concentration of IL-6 was significantly higher than that in PDR patients without VH. There was a strong positive correlation between the vitreous levels of pentosidine and IL-6. Levels of IL-6 were strikingly higher in the vitreous compared with the serum and there was no correlation between IL-6 concentrations in the two fluids. Treatment of Müller cells with AGEs for 48 h resulted in a dose-dependent increase of IL-6 in the culture medium. These results suggest that increased formation of AGEs in the vitreous may be involved in the development of diabetic retinopathy by inducing the production of IL-6 from retinal Müller cells.

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