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Nat Rev Immunol. 2003 Sep;3(9):733-44.

Immune regulation by helminth parasites: cellular and molecular mechanisms.

Author information

1
Institute for Cell, Animal and Population Biology, University of Edinburgh, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK. r.maizels@ed.ac.uk

Abstract

Immunology was founded by studying the body's response to infectious microorganisms, and yet microbial prokaryotes only tell half the story of the immune system. Eukaryotic pathogens--protozoa, helminths, fungi and ectoparasites--have all been powerful selective forces for immune evolution. Often, as with lethal protozoal parasites, the focus has been on acute infections and the inflammatory responses they evoke. Long-lived parasites such as the helminths, however, are more remarkable for their ability to downregulate host immunity, protecting themselves from elimination and minimizing severe pathology in the host.

PMID:
12949497
DOI:
10.1038/nri1183
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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