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J Clin Oncol. 2003 Sep 1;21(17):3343-50.

Vaccination with irradiated, autologous melanoma cells engineered to secrete granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor by adenoviral-mediated gene transfer augments antitumor immunity in patients with metastatic melanoma.

Author information

1
Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Vaccination with irradiated, autologous melanoma cells engineered to secrete granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) by retroviral-mediated gene transfer generates potent antitumor immunity in patients with metastatic melanoma. Further clinical development of this immunization scheme requires simplification of vaccine manufacture. We conducted a phase I clinical trial testing the biologic activity of vaccination with irradiated, autologous melanoma cells engineered to secrete GM-CSF by adenoviral-mediated gene transfer.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:

Excised metastases were processed to single cells, transduced with a replication-defective adenoviral vector encoding GM-CSF, irradiated, and cryopreserved. Individual vaccines were composed of 1 x 10(6), 4 x 10(6), or 1 x 10(7) tumor cells, depending on overall yield, and were injected intradermally and subcutaneously at weekly and biweekly intervals.

RESULTS:

Vaccines were successfully manufactured for 34 (97%) of 35 patients. The average GM-CSF secretion was 745 ng/106 cells/24 hours. Toxicities were restricted to grade 1 to 2 local skin reactions. Eight patients were withdrawn early because of rapid disease progression. Vaccination elicited dense dendritic cell, macrophage, granulocyte, and lymphocyte infiltrates at injection sites in 19 of 26 assessable patients. Immunization stimulated the development of delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions to irradiated, dissociated, autologous, nontransduced tumor cells in 17 of 25 patients. Metastatic lesions that were resected after vaccination showed brisk or focal T-lymphocyte and plasma cell infiltrates with tumor necrosis in 10 of 16 patients. One complete, one partial, and one mixed response were noted. Ten patients (29%) are alive, with a minimum follow-up of 36 months; four of these patients have no evidence of disease.

CONCLUSION:

Vaccination with irradiated, autologous melanoma cells engineered to secrete GM-CSF by adenoviral-mediated gene transfer augments antitumor immunity in patients with metastatic melanoma.

PMID:
12947071
DOI:
10.1200/JCO.2003.07.005
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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