Send to

Choose Destination
Cell Biol Toxicol. 2003 Jun;19(3):145-59.

Comparative particle-induced cytotoxicity toward macrophages and fibroblasts.

Author information

UMR CNRS 6600, University of Technology of Compiègne, Compiègne, France.


The cytotoxicity caused by the debris resulting from wear of prostheses can produce major damage to tissues around the implant. We have compared particle internalization by macrophages and fibroblasts in vitro and analyzed cell death. J774.2 macrophages and L929 fibroblasts were incubated with 0.43 and 2.81 microm alumina particles or 0.45 and 3.53 microm polystyrene (PS) beads. Incubation of J774.2 cells with alumina particles of both sizes and 0.5 and 1.0 mg/ml PS beads significantly decreased cell numbers in a particle concentration-dependent manner. L929 cells were not affected by lower concentrations of 0.43 microm alumina particles (which aggregate at high concentrations) and they internalized 0.45 microm PS beads without any decrease in cell numbers. Particles were more cytotoxic for macrophages than for fibroblasts. Particles caused the size of both types of cells to increase in correlation with cytotoxicity. Trypan blue exclusion and lactate dehydrogenase release showed cell membrane leakage for both types of cells incubated with PS beads for 24 h. Apoptosis was assessed by annexin V-FITC, propidium iodide staining and assay of caspase 3 activity. Macrophage death appeared to depend on both necrosis, caused mainly by 3.53 microm PS beads, and apoptosis, mainly due to 0.45 microm PS beads. The release of the inflammatory cytokine IL-6 appears to be nonlinearly correlated with cytotoxicity. Thus, the size of the internalized particles affects macrophages and fibroblasts differently, and the increase in cell size can be used as a preliminary criterion of particle cytotoxicity in vitro.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Loading ...
Support Center