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Microbes Infect. 2003 Sep;5(11):951-9.

Toll-like receptor 4-mediated signaling by epithelial surfaces: necessity or threat?

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Microbiology and Tumor Biology Center (MTC) and Swedish Institute for Disease Control (SMI), Karolinska Institutet, Nobelsväg 16, 17177 Stockholm, Sweden.


Recent data suggest that the lipopolysaccharide receptor Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 is expressed by epithelial cells and might play a role in the mucosal host defense against Gram-negative bacteria. However, since many body surfaces are colonized by the physiological microflora, activation of epithelial TLRs must be tightly controlled to avoid unintended stimulation and mucosal inflammation. The present review summarizes the current understanding of TLR4-mediated recognition and addresses specific questions on microbial recognition on mucosal surfaces, with particular emphasis on the gastrointestinal and urinary tract.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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