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Health Psychol. 2003 Jul;22(4):340-6.

Residual outcome expectations and relapse in ex-smokers.

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Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, Leiden University, the Netherlands.


From a social cognitive theoretical point of view, strong positive outcome expectations of smoking are a cause of relapse in smoking cessation, working in concert with self-efficacy. This study investigated whether and to what extent this could be verified in a sample of ex-smokers. Some (N = 324) ex-smokers were followed for 7 months. At Time 1 (T1) and Time 2 (T2), participants filled in a self-report questionnaire assessing residual outcome expectations (ROEs), self-efficacy, craving for tobacco, and smoking behavior, which was sent and returned by mail. First, prospective analyses showed that ROEs assessed at T1 predicted relapse reported at T2 over and above self-efficacy. Second, the influence of ROEs (and self-efficacy) on relapse was mediated by craving experience. Third, the hypothesized interactions between ROEs and self-efficacy were significant and meaningful.

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