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J Contemp Dent Pract. 2003 Aug 15;4(3):24-35.

The effect of oral hygiene instructions on diabetic type 2 male patients with periodontal diseases.

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Department of Periodontics at New York University, College of Dentistry, USA.


Periodontal disease and diabetes are two common chronic diseases affecting humans. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of oral hygiene instructions on periodontal disease among type 2 male diabetic Saudi subjects. Sixty subjects completed the study and were divided into three groups of 20: healthy (non-diabetic) with periodontal disease, type 2 diabetic with early or moderate periodontal disease, and type 2 diabetic with advanced periodontitis. The age ranged from 24-64 (42 +/- 13.60) years. The subjects were examined at King Saud University, College of Dentistry, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Oral hygiene practices and smoking habits were recorded. Oral hygiene instructions given to patients were to use an Oral B medium toothbrush and brush three times daily for 7 days using the by Bass technique for 2 minutes. Fasting blood glucose level (FBGL), gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN), and plaque index (Pll) were used to assess patients' profiles at baseline and at recall visit after 7 days. The results showed there was a significant overall decrease in FBGL, baseline 172.67 mg/dl (+/-64.69) to recall visit 162.20 (+/-58.78) P = 0.000, and GCF volume decreased from.4041 micro l (+/-.1260) to .3698 micro l (+/-.1164) P = 0.000. There was a significant reduction in subjects' CPITN mean scores (from 13.98 (+/-8.24) to 13.32 (+/-8.97) P = 0.000), but there was no significant difference in Group 3 with advanced periodontitis, i.e., 22.25 (+/-1.37) to 22.30 (+/-1.38). There was more than a 47% reduction in the overall percentage of plaque scores. The decrease ranged from 82.27 (+/-19.34) to 34.45 (+/-17.04) at baseline and recall visit respectively. It is concluded oral hygiene instructions (a standardized regimen) has an effect on FBGL, GCF, CPITN, and PlI. It is also concluded CPITN is not very sensitive to assess change in periodontal status over a 7 days period. Further studies are needed among diabetic and healthy subjects with a larger sample size and over a longer period of time.

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