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Phys Rev Lett. 2003 Aug 15;91(7):071301. Epub 2003 Aug 13.

Phantom energy: dark energy with w <--1 causes a cosmic doomsday.

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Department of Physics & Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755, USA.


We explore the consequences that follow if the dark energy is phantom energy, in which the sum of the pressure and energy density is negative. The positive phantom-energy density becomes infinite in finite time, overcoming all other forms of matter, such that the gravitational repulsion rapidly brings our brief epoch of cosmic structure to a close. The phantom energy rips apart the Milky Way, solar system, Earth, and ultimately the molecules, atoms, nuclei, and nucleons of which we are composed, before the death of the Universe in a "big rip."

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