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Ann Pharmacother. 2003 Sep;37(9):1287-98.

Fluoroquinolone AUIC break points and the link to bacterial killing rates. Part 1: In vitro and animal models.

Author information

1
CPL Associates, LLC, Buffalo, NY, USA. schentag@buffalo.edu

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To review in vitro and animal model studies with fluoroquinolones and the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic relationships that are predictive of clinical and microbiologic outcomes and resistance. Data on fluoroquinolones are summarized and examine the premise that a single area under the inhibitory concentration-time curve (AUIC) target >125 may be used for all fluoroquinolones with concentration-dependent killing actions and against all target organisms.

DATA SOURCES:

Primary articles were identified by MEDLINE search (1966-February 2002) and through secondary sources.

STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION:

All of the articles identified from the data sources were evaluated, and all information deemed relevant was included.

DATA SYNTHESIS:

The fluoroquinolones exhibit concentration-dependent killing. This effect clearly depends on concentrations achieved, and outcomes depend on endpoints established by individual investigators. With AUIC values <60, the actions of fluoroquinolones are essentially bacteriostatic; any observed bacterial killing is the combined effect of low concentrations in relation to minimum inhibitory concentration and the action of host factors such as neutrophils and macrophages. AUIC values >100 but <250 yield bacterial killing at a slow rate, but usually by day 7 of treatment. AUICs >250 produce rapid killing, and bacterial eradication occurs within 24 hours. Disagreements regarding target endpoints are the expected consequences of comparing microbial and clinical outcomes across animal models, in vitro experiments, and humans when the endpoints are clearly not equivalent. Careful attention to time-related events, such as speed of bacterial killing, versus global endpoints, such as bacteriologic cure, allows optimal break points to be defined.

CONCLUSIONS:

Evidence from in vitro and animal models favors the use of AUIC values >250 for rapid bactericidal action, regardless of whether the organism is gram-negative or gram-positive.

PMID:
12921513
DOI:
10.1345/aph.1C199
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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