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Anal Chem. 2003 May 15;75(10):2316-23.

High ionic strength glucose-sensing photonic crystal.

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Department of Chemistry, Chevron Science Center, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, USA.


We demonstrate a colorimetric glucose recognition material consisting of a crystalline colloidal array embedded within a polyacrylamide-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel, or a polyacrylamide-15-crown-5 hydrogel, with pendent phenylboronic acid groups. We utilize a new molecular recognition motif, in which boronic acid and PEG (or crown ether) functional groups are prepositioned in a photonic crystal hydrogel, such that glucose self-assembles these functional groups into a supramolecular complex. The formation of the complex results in an increase in the hydrogel cross-linking, which for physiologically relevant glucose concentration blue shifts the photonic crystal diffraction. The visually evident diffraction color shifts across the visible spectral region over physiologically important glucose concentration ranges. These materials respond to glucose at physiological ionic strengths and pH values and are selective in their mode of response for glucose over galactose, mannose, and fructose. Thus, we have developed a new recognition motif for glucose that shows promise for the fabrication of noninvasive or minimally invasive in vivo glucose sensing for patients with diabetes mellitus.

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