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J Neurosci. 2003 Aug 13;23(19):7395-406.

The retinotopic organization of primate dorsal V4 and surrounding areas: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study in awake monkeys.

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Laboratorium voor Neuroen Psychofysiologie, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Campus Gasthuisberg, Leuven B-3000, Belgium.


Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we mapped the retinotopic organization throughout the visual cortex of fixating monkeys. The retinotopy observed in areas V1, V2, and V3 was completely consistent with the classical view. V1 and V3 were bordered rostrally by a vertical meridian representation, and V2 was bordered by a horizontal meridian. More anterior in occipital cortex, both areas V3A and MT-V5 had lower and upper visual field representations split by a horizontal meridian. The rostral border of dorsal V4 was characterized by the gradual transition of a representation of the vertical meridian (dorsally) to a representation of the horizontal meridian (more ventrally). Central and ventral V4, on the other hand, were rostrally bordered by a representation of the horizontal meridian. The eccentricity lines ran perpendicular to the ventral V3-V4 border but were parallel to the dorsal V3-V4 border. These results indicate different retinotopic organizations within dorsal and ventral V4, suggesting that the latter regions may not be merely the lower and upper visual field representations of a single area. Moreover, because the present fMRI data are in agreement with previously published electrophysiological results, reported distinctions in the retinotopic organization of human and monkey dorsal V4 reflect genuine species differences that cannot be attributed to technical confounds. Finally, aside from dorsal V4, the retinotopic organization of macaque early visual cortex (V1, V2, V3, V3A, and ventral V4) is remarkably similar to that observed in human fMRI studies. This finding indicates that early visual cortex is mostly conserved throughout hominid evolution.

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