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Ann Hum Genet. 2003 Jul;67(Pt 4):372-5.

miLD and booLD programs for calculation and analysis of corrected linkage disequilibrium.

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  • 1Genetic Epidemiology Unit, Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Erasmus Medical Center Rotterdam, The Netherlands.


We describe software which calculates a set of linkage disequilibrium statistics, including multiallelic D' corrected by the bootstrap and permutation. The software also provides a tool for maximum likelihood and least squares estimation and testing of a set of hierarchical hypotheses formulated within the framework of the Malecot model of the decay of linkage disequilibrium with distance. Additionally, the bootstrap approach is used for estimation of the model parameter's confidence intervals and for hypothesis testing. The programs are available from

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