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Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2004 Feb;63(5):571-7. Epub 2003 Aug 8.

A derivative of the menaquinone precursor 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate is involved in the reductive transformation of carbon tetrachloride by aerobically grown Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

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Department of Civil Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 95305, USA.


Transformation of carbon tetrachloride (CT) by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 has been proposed to involve the anaerobic respiratory-chain component menaquinone. To investigate this hypothesis a series of menaquinone mutants were constructed. The menF mutant is blocked at the start of the menaquinone biosynthetic pathway. The menB, menA and menG mutants are all blocked towards the end of the pathway, being unable to produce 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (DHNA), demethyl-menaquinone and menaquinone, respectively. Aerobically grown mutants unable to produce the menaquinone precursor DHNA (menF and menB mutants) showed a distinctly different CT transformation profile than mutants able to produce DHNA but unable to produce menaquinone (menA and menG mutants). While DHNA did not reduce CT in an abiotic assay, the addition of DHNA to the menF and menB mutants restored normal CT transformation activity. We conclude that a derivative of DHNA, that is distinct from menaquinone, is involved in the reduction of CT by aerobically grown S. oneidensis MR-1. When cells were grown anaerobically with trimethylamine-N-oxide as the terminal electron acceptor, all the menaquinone mutants showed wild-type levels of CT reduction. We conclude that S. oneidensis MR-1 produces two different factors capable of dehalogenating CT. The factor produced under anaerobic growth conditions is not a product of the menaquinone biosynthetic pathway.

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