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J Med Chem. 2003 Aug 14;46(17):3612-22.

Efficacious and orally bioavailable thrombin inhibitors based on a 2,5-thienylamidine at the P1 position: discovery of N-carboxymethyl-d-diphenylalanyl-l-prolyl[(5-amidino-2-thienyl)methyl]amide.

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LG Life Sciences Ltd./R&D Park, P.O. Box 61 Yu-Sung, Science Town, Taejon 305-380, Korea.


Thrombin, a crucial enzyme in the blood coagulation, has been a target for antithrombotic therapy. Orally active thrombin inhibitors would provide effective and safe prophylaxis for venous and arterial thrombosis. We conducted optimization of a highly efficacious benzamidine-based thrombin inhibitor LB30812 (3, K(i) = 3 pM) to improve oral bioavailability. Of a variety of arylamidines investigated at the P1 position, 2,5-thienylamidine effectively replaced the benzamidine without compromising the thrombin inhibitory potency and oral absorption. The sulfamide and sulfonamide derivatization at the N-terminal position in general afforded highly potent thrombin inhibitors but with moderate oral absorption, while the well-absorbable N-carbamate derivatives exhibited limited metabolic stability in S9 fractions. The present work culminated in the discovery of the N-carboxymethyl- and 2,5-thienylamidine-containing compound 22 that exhibits the most favorable profiles of anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities as well as oral bioavilability (K(i) = 15 pM; F = 43%, 42%, and 15% in rats, dogs, and monkeys, respectively). This compound on a gravimetric basis was shown to be more effective than a low molecular weight heparin, enoxaparin, in the venous thrombosis models of rat and rabbit. Compound 22 (LB30870) was therefore selected for further preclinical and clinical development.

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