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World J Surg. 1992 Jan-Feb;16(1):16-23.

Burn shock resuscitation.

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Shriners Burns Institute, Cincinnati, Ohio.


The goal of fluid resuscitation in the burn patient is maintenance of vital organ function at the least immediate or delayed physiological cost. To optimize fluid resuscitation in severely burned patients, the amount of fluid should be just enough to maintain vital organ function without producing iatrogenic pathological changes. The composition of the resuscitation fluid in the first 24 hours postburn probably makes very little difference; however, it should be individualized to the particular patient. The utilization of the advantages of hypertonic, crystalloid, and colloid solutions at various times postburn will minimize the amount of edema formation. The rate of administration of resuscitation fluids should be that necessary to maintain satisfactory organ function, with maintenance of hourly urine outputs of 30 cc to 50 cc in adults and 1-2 cc/kg/% burn in children. When a child reaches 30 kg to 50 kg in weight, the urine output should be maintained at the adult level. With our current knowledge of the massive fluid shifts and vascular changes that occur, mortality related to burn-induced hypovolemia has decreased considerably. The failure rate for adequate initial volume restoration is less than 5% even for patients with burns of more than 85% of the total body surface area. These improved statistics, however, are derived from experience in burn centers, where there is substantial knowledge of the pathophysiology of burn injury. Inadequate volume replacement in major burns is, unfortunately, common when clinicians lack sufficient knowledge in this area.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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