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Curr Opin Immunol. 2003 Aug;15(4):402-7.

Toll-like receptors and innate antiviral responses.

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Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of California Los Angeles, 90095, USA.


Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have a unique and important role in detecting the presence of pathogenic infection. TLRs can recognize conserved structures from a wide variety of microorganisms, such as bacteria, mycobacteria, spirochetes and yeast. However, they are generally not thought to play a major role in viral infection. Several reports have now identified distinct viral ligands for the TLRs, and evidence is accumulating for a functional role of the TLRs in mediating antiviral effector mechanisms.

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