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Recent Results Cancer Res. 2003;164:393-411.

Efficacy and mechanism of action of 1alpha-hydroxy-24-ethyl-cholecalciferol (1alpha[OH]D5) in breast cancer prevention and therapy.

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1
Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Illinois at Chicago, 840 S. Wood Street, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.

Abstract

It is now well established that the active metabolite of vitamin D3, 1alpha,25(OH)2D3, regulates cell growth and differentiation in various in vitro cancer models. However, its clinical use is precluded due to its hypercalcemic activity in vivo. Hence, several less calcemic vitamin D analogs have been synthesized and evaluated for their chemopreventive and therapeutic efficacy in experimental carcinogenesis models. A novel analog of vitamin D3, 1alpha-hydroxy-24-ethyl-cholecalciferol (1alpha[OH]D5), has currently been under investigation in our laboratory for its application in breast cancer prevention and therapy. 1alpha(OH)D5 had been shown to inhibit development of estrogen- and progesterone-dependent ductal lesions as well as steroid hormone-independent alveolar lesions in a mammary gland organ culture (MMOC) model. Moreover, the inhibitory effect was more significant if 1alpha(OH)D5 was present during the promotional phase of the lesion development. The growth inhibitory effect of 1alpha(OH)D5 has also been manifested in several breast cancer cell lines, including BT-474 and MCF-7. Breast cancer cell lines that responded to 1alpha(OH)D5 treatment were vitamin D receptor positive (VDR+). Vitamin D receptor-negative (VDR-) cell lines, such as MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435, did not show growth inhibition upon incubation with 1alpha(OH)D5. This suggests the requirement of VDR in 1alpha(OH)D5-mediated growth effects. Interestingly, breast cancer cells that were VDR+ as well as estrogen receptor positive (ER+) showed cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, while VDR+ but ER- cells (UISO-BCA-4 breast cancer cells) showed enhanced expression of various differentiation markers with la(OH)D5 treatment. Transcription and expression of estrogen-inducible genes, progesterone receptor (PR) and trefoil factor 1 (pS2), were significantly down-regulated in ER+ BT-474 cells with 1alpha(OH)D5 treatment. This implies a differential effect of 1alpha(OH)D5 on ER+ vs. ER- cells. Additionally, comparison between the effects of 1alpha(OH)D5 on normal vs. transformed cells indicated that 1alpha(OH)D5 does not suppress cell prolifera-

PMID:
12899538
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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