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Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2003 Aug;56(2):198-204.

Effects of sex on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of quinidine.

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1
Wolfson Unit of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH.

Abstract

AIMS:

To investigate the source of the apparent increased susceptibility of women to develop QT interval prolongation and torsade de pointes after the administration of drugs that delay cardiac repolarization.

METHODS:

Plasma quinidine concentrations and electrocardiographic changes (QRS and QT intervals) were measured over 24 h following the administration of single oral doses of the QT prolonging drug quinidine (3 mg kg(-1)) and compared between 27 male and 21 female healthy volunteers.

RESULTS:

There were no significant differences between males and females in plasma quinidine concentrations or in calculated pharmacokinetic variables. Maximum quinidine concentrations in males and females were 997 +/- 56 and 871 +/- 57 ng ml(-1), respectively (mean difference (-125, 95% confidence intervals (CI) -239, 11 ng ml(-1), P = NS). Quinidine lengthened actual (QTa) and corrected (QTc) QT intervals and the QRS interval to a greater extent in females than males (P < 0.001 for each), but there were no significant sex differences detected in the effects of quinidine on the heart rate corrected JT interval. Maximum prolongation of QTc interval was observed 2 h after quinidine and was significantly greater in women (33 +/- 16 vs 24 +/- 17 ms, mean difference 9 +/- 20 ms, 95% CI 3, 15, P = 0.037). At this time mean differences (95% CI) were 1.0 min(-1) (-2.5, 4.4, P = NS) for heart rate, 5.5 ms (3.5, 7.6, P = 0.05) for the QRS and 3.4 ms (-2.5, 9.3, P = NS) for the JTc intervals.

CONCLUSIONS:

Quinidine-induced increases in QTc were larger in females, but no sex differences in quinidine pharmacokinetics were found. The disparity in prolongation of cardiac repolarization is thus due to a pharmacodynamic difference which appears more complex than simply an increase in repolarization delay in females.

PMID:
12895193
PMCID:
PMC1884276
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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