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Blood. 2003 Nov 15;102(10):3765-74. Epub 2003 Jul 31.

The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib interacts synergistically with histone deacetylase inhibitors to induce apoptosis in Bcr/Abl+ cells sensitive and resistant to STI571.

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1
Department of Medicine, Virginia Commonweatlth University, Medical College of Virginia, Richmond VA, 23298, USA.

Abstract

Interactions between the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) have been examined in Bcr/Abl+ human leukemia cells (K562 and LAMA 84). Coexposure of cells (24-48 hours) to minimally toxic concentrations of bortezomib + either suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) or sodium butyrate (SB) resulted in a striking increase in mitochondrial injury, caspase activation, and apoptosis, reflected by caspases-3 and -8 cleavage and poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) degradation. These events were accompanied by down-regulation of the Raf-1/mitogen-induced extracellular kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) pathway as well as diminished expression of Bcr/Abl and cyclin D1, cleavage of p21CIP1 and phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb), and induction of the stress-related kinases Jun kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Transient transfection of cells with a constitutively active MEK construct significantly protected them from bortezomib/SAHA-mediated lethality. Coadministration of bortezomib and SAHA resulted in increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and diminished nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) activation; moreover, the free radical scavenger L-N-acetylcyteine (LNAC) blocked bortezomib/SAHA-related ROS generation, induction of JNK and p21CIP1, and apoptosis. Lastly, this regimen potently induced apoptosis in STI571 (imatinib mesylate)-resistant K562 cells and CD34+ mononuclear cells obtained from a patient with STI571-resistant disease, as well as in Bcr/Abl- leukemia cells (eg, HL-60, U937, Jurkat). Together, these findings raise the possibility that combined proteasome/histone deacetylase inhibition may represent a novel strategy in leukemia, including apoptosis-resistant Bcr/Abl+ hematologic malignancies.

PMID:
12893773
DOI:
10.1182/blood-2003-03-0737
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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