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Urology. 2003 Aug;62(2):353-6.

Carbon tetrachloride-induced nephrotoxicity and protective effect of betaine in Sprague-Dawley rats.

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Department of Histology-Embryology, Inonu University Faculty of Medicine, Malatya, Turkey.



To observe the changes in the antioxidative defense enzymes and to detect the alterations of renal microscopy after carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) administration in rats and to investigate the possible protective effects of betaine against CCl4-induced renal damage.


Thirty-two adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups as follows: control group, betaine group, CCl4 group, and CCl4 + betaine group. CCl4 was given subcutaneously at 1 mL/kg. In the CCl4 + betaine group, rats were pretreated with betaine, then exposed to CCl4 at the same dose. Betaine group rats received concentrated betaine solution. The rats were killed and the kidneys taken for enzyme analyses and histologic examination. Glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities were measured in right kidney homogenates. Left kidneys were processed for light microscopic evaluation.


In the CCl4-treated group, significant increases in kidney superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and significant decrease in glutathione peroxidase activity were observed (P <0.01). These changes were found to be normalized in the CCl4 + betaine group. Betaine did not change the enzyme activities. Exposure to CCl4 resulted in glomerular and tubular alterations in the renal cortex. These alterations were found to be prevented by betaine pretreatment.


These results indicate that exposure to CCl4 leads to renal damage in rats and betaine exerts an improvement on nephrotoxic effects of CCl4.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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