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J Cell Physiol. 2003 Sep;196(3):454-63.

Gastrin and EGF synergistically induce cyclooxygenase-2 expression in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts that express the CCK2 receptor.

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Division of Digestive Diseases, Department of Medicine, CURE: Digestive Diseases Research Center, Greater Los Angeles VA Medical Center, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA.


Over-expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been demonstrated to be tumorigenic in transgenic mice. Chronic treatment with NSAIDs is chemoprotective for colorectal cancer. Gastrin is a growth factor for gastric mucosa and has been shown to promote proliferation of colorectal cells. Recent studies suggest that COX-2 expression levels could mediate the growth effects of gastrin. Here, we report that gastrin increased PGE2 secretion in Swiss 3T3 cells expressing the CCK2 receptor. Gastrin dose dependently induced COX-2 protein levels in a time dependent manner. COX-2 mRNA levels were rapidly induced by a dose dependent increase in gastrin. Prior treatment of the cells with the CCK2 receptor specific antagonist, L365,260, inhibited gastrin-induced COX-2 protein and mRNA expression. Pretreatment with L364,714, the CCK1 receptor specific antagonist did not block COX-2 induction by gastrin. Inhibition of de novo protein synthesis by cycloheximide did not block COX-2 mRNA induction by gastrin. Also, gastrin-dependent COX-2 expression did not require PKC activity, activation of ERK, or transactivation of EGFR. However, co-stimulation with EGF and gastrin synergistically induced COX-2 protein and mRNA expression and PGE2 secretion. Measurements of COX-2 mRNA stability and COX-2 gene transcription reveal that EGF significantly increased the half-life of COX-2 mRNA with only a slight increase in the COX-2 transcription rate. Conversely, gastrin significantly increased COX-2 gene transcription rates but did not enhance COX-2 mRNA stability.

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