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Am Heart J. 2003 Aug;146(2):331-8.

Risk factors for myocardial infarction in Brazil.

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Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia, São Paulo, Brazil.



Approximately three-quarters of cardiovascular disease deaths in the world come from developing countries, and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is an important cause of death. Brazil is one of the largest countries in Latin America and the contemporary evaluation of risk factors for AMI is crucial for a more efficacious disease management.


The Acute Myocardial Infarction Risk Factor Assessment in Brazil (AFIRMAR) study is a case-control, hospital-based study involving 104 hospitals in 51 cities in Brazil, designed to evaluate risk factors for a first ST-segment elevation AMI.


A total of 1279 pairs, matched by age (+/- 5 years) and sex, were enrolled. The conditional multivariable analysis of 33 variables showed the following independent risk factors for AMI: > or =5 cigarettes per day (odds ratio [OR] 4.90, P <.00001); glucose > or =126 mg/dL (OR 2.82, P <.00001); waist/hip ratio > or =0.94 (OR 2.45, P <.00001); family history of CAD (OR 2.29, P <.00001), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol 100 to 120 mg/dL (OR 2.10, P <.00001); reported hypertension (OR 2.09, P <.00001); <5 cigarettes per day (OR 2.07, P =.0171); low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol >120 mg/dL (OR 1.75, P <.00001); reported diabetes mellitus (OR 1.70, P =.0069); waist/hip ratio 0.90 to 0.93 (OR 1.52, P =.0212); alcohol intake (up to 2 days/week) (OR 0.75, P <.0309); alcohol intake (3-7 days/week) (OR 0.60, P =.0085); family income R$600 to R$1200 and college education (OR 2.92, P =.0499); family income >R$1200 and college education (OR 0.68, P = 0.0239)


The independent risk factors for AMI in Brazil showed a conventional distribution pattern (smoking, diabetes mellitus and central obesity among others) with different strengths of association; most of them being preventable by implementation of adequate policies.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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