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Lipids. 2003 May;38(5):551-9.

Marine lipid-based liposomes increase in vivo FA bioavailability.

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Institut des Sciences et Techniques des Aliments de Bordeaux, Nutrition et Signalisation Cellulaire, F-33405 Talence Cedex, France.


Liposomes made from an extract of natural marine lipids and containing a high n-3 PUFA lipid ratio were envisaged as oral route vectors for FA supplements in order to increase PUFA bioavailability. The absorption of FA in thoracic lymph duct-cannulated rats, after intragastric feeding of dietary fats in the form of liposomes or fish oil, was compared. Lipid and FA analyses were also performed on feces. Five mole percent alpha-tocopherol was added to fish oil and incorporated into the liposome membrane. The influence of alpha-tocopherol on FA lymph recovery was also investigated. In vivo, FA absorption in rats was favored by liposomes (98 +/- 1%) compared to fish oil (73 +/- 6%). In the same way, the DHA proportion in lymph was higher after liposome ingestion (78%) than after fish oil ingestion (47%). However, phospholipid (PL) concentration in lymph was not affected by the kind of dietary fat ingested, suggesting a PL regulation due to de novo TAG synthesis. The influence of the intramolecular distribution of n-3 PUFA in dietary lipids (TAG and PL) on the intramolecular FA distribution in TAG of chylomicrons was also investigated. The results obtained showed that the distribution of n-3 PUFA esterified on the sn-2 position of chylomicron TAG depended on the lipid source administered. All these results correlated, at least partly, with in vitro liposome behavior under conditions that mimic those of the gastrointestinal tract. As a whole, this study pointed out that marine PL may constitute an attractive material for the development of liposomes as oral PUFA supplements.

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