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Semin Hematol. 2003 Jul;40(3):244-56.

Systemic and primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphomas.

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Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.


Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a neoplasm of activated lymphocytes, commonly expressing T-cell antigens and cytotoxic proteins. Histopathology reveals distinctive infiltration of sinuses and paracortical T-cell-rich regions of lymph nodes by tumor cells which have abundant cytoplasm and large irregular/convoluted nuclei, and which are frequently multinucleated with prominent nucleoli. ALCL often presents in advanced clinical stages with B symptoms; extranodal disease occurs in 40% of patients. The pathogenesis of systemic ALCL is linked to phosphorylation of a tyrosine kinase (ALK) resulting in unregulated growth of affected lymphoid cells. ALK is activated through chromosomal translocations/inversions with any of several partner genes, most commonly nucleophosmin (NPM). Downstream signal transduction pathway(s) are not fully defined but appear to involve phospholipase Cgamma, phosphatidylinositol (PI)3K/Akt, and STAT-3 and STAT-5 proteins. Primary cutaneous ALCL appears to have a different pathogenesis and better prognosis than does systemic ALCL, presenting as one or more skin tumors, usually localized. Excision or local irradiation is usually effective treatment. A clinically benign variant of primary cutaneous ALCL is lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP), characterized by recurrent crops of papules/nodules up to 2 cm in diameter which undergo spontaneous regression. LyP is managed by observation, ultraviolet light therapy, or low-dose methotrexate. LyP patients have a predisposition to develop malignant lymphomas, including Hodgkin's lymphoma, mycosis fungoides, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, by as yet unknown mechanisms. The prognosis for patients with LyP is otherwise excellent.

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