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Nat Rev Immunol. 2003 Jul;3(7):544-56. doi: 10.1038/nri1131.

Unifying concepts in CD28, ICOS and CTLA4 co-receptor signalling.

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Molecular Immunology Section, Department of Immunology, Division of Investigative Science, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 ONN, UK.


Many studies have shown the central importance of the co-receptors CD28, inducible costimulatory molecule (ICOS) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) in the regulation of many aspects of T-cell function. CD28 and ICOS have both overlapping and distinct functions in the positive regulation of T-cell responses, whereas CTLA4 negatively regulates the response. The signalling pathways that underlie the function of each of the co-receptors indicate their shared and unique properties and provide compelling hints of functions that are as yet uncovered. Here, we outline the shared and distinct signalling events that are associated with each of the co-receptors and provide unifying concepts that are related to signalling functions of these co-receptors.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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