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Clin Nephrol. 2003 Jul;60(1):13-21.

Combined converting enzyme inhibition and angiotensin receptor blockade reduce proteinuria greater than converting enzyme inhibition alone: insights into mechanism.

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Nephrology Section, Department of Medicine, Lenox Hill Hospital and The New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10021, USA.


Patients with various renal diseases receiving an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (CEI) were enrolled in a protocol to determine whether adding an angiotensin type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) reduces urinary protein excretion (UPE). All patients had significant proteinuria (range 517-8,562 mg/24 h) despite administration of CEI for at least 4 weeks. Following baseline measurements, losartan (50 mg/d) was started and testing was repeated at 1 month. Compared with CEI alone, combined CEI plus ARB reduced UPE by 45 +/- 8% (p < 0.005). Compared with CEI alone, CEI + ARB lowered UPE in each patient independent of baseline protein excretion or renal diagnosis. Reduction in proteinuria occurred independent of changes in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), suggesting that the mechanism involved local changes in glomerular dynamics. If renal angiotensin II (ANG II) formation occurred despite CEI, the ANG II formed would suppress plasma renin activity (PRA), and adding an ARB would cause PRA to rise. In 7 of 10 subjects, addition of ARB to CEI increased PRA (p < 0.03) suggesting that intrarenal ANG II formation occurred in CEI-treated subjects. As a second marker of ANG II tissue activity, we measured the effects adding ARB on plasma aldosterone (ALDO). In 9 of 10 subjects, ALDO was acutely lowered (p < 0.009) suggesting that ANG II levels were incompletely blocked by CEI. We conclude that: combined CEI and ARB reduces UPE greater than CEI alone; reduction in proteinuria is independent of changes in MAP or renal diagnosis; and the additive effects of CEI and ARB are due at least in part to greater inhibition ofANG II action at the tissue level in the kidneys and adrenal glomerulosa.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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