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Lancet. 2003 Jul 12;362(9378):147-58.

Demographics and concomitant disorders in heart failure.

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  • 1NHMRC Centre of Clinical Research Excellence in Therapeutics, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Australia. <>


Chronic heart failure is an increasingly common cause of premature death and poor quality of life. Community-based epidemiological studies have provided much-needed information on the demography of chronic heart failure, providing insight into its influence on public health. In most patients, chronic heart failure is accompanied by a range of concomitant disorders that both contribute to the cause of the disease and have a key role in its progression and response to treatment. Information on the most common comorbidities in chronic heart failure--ischaemic heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus--is presented for prespecified subgroups in the reports of many large-scale, multicentre trials; despite their limitations, these subanalyses provide guidance in therapeutic decision-making. Similarly, because chronic heart failure is commonly an endpoint in intervention trials of both hypertension and diabetes, such studies afford important information on the prevention of chronic heart failure in these common diseases.

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