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Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2003 Dec;285(6):H2264-76. Epub 2003 Jul 10.

Orthogonal properties of the redox siblings nitroxyl and nitric oxide in the cardiovascular system: a novel redox paradigm.

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Tumor Biology Section, Radiation Biology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bldg. 10, Rm. B3-B69, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.


Endogenous formation of nitric oxide (NO) and related nitrogen oxides in the vascular system is critical to regulation of multiple physiological functions. An imbalance in the production or availability of these species can result in progression of disease. Nitrogen oxide research in the cardiovascular system has primarily focused on the effects of NO and higher oxidation products. However, nitroxyl (HNO), the one-electron-reduction product of NO, has recently been shown to have unique and potentially beneficial pharmacological properties. HNO and NO often induce discrete biological responses, providing an interesting redox system. This article discusses the emerging aspects of HNO chemistry and attempts to provide a framework for the distinct effects of NO and HNO in vivo.

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