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J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2003 Jun;43(2):189-201.

The effects of various therapeutic measures on shoulder strength and muscle soreness after baseball pitching.

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Doctoral Program in Medical Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.



This study was intended as an investigation of the effects of various therapeutic measures on the shoulder strength and muscle soreness after baseball pitching.



participants threw 98 pitches in a simulated single game. The mode of the therapeutic measures after pitching were classified into 4 groups; the control group (CON), the ice treatment group (IT), the light shoulder exercise group (LSE) and the ice treatment with LSE group (ILSE). Each therapeutic measure was applied to the dominant shoulder immediately after pitching.


7 healthy, skilled baseball pitchers.


both shoulder strength and muscle soreness were measured before pitching, immediately after pitching (Post-P), at the time of the therapeutic measure (Post-TM), and 24 hours after pitching (Post-24 h).


All 4 groups showed shoulder strength losses in shoulder abduction, internal/external rotation with no shoulder abduction or with the shoulder abducted to 90 degrees immediately after pitching. ILSE had greater recovery from Post-P values at Post-TM or Post-24 h than the other methods in all 5 shoulder strengths. On the other hand, the soreness in shoulder internal rotation was increased significantly from Post-P and continued by Post-24 h. Both IT and ILSE had beneficial effects on reducing the shoulder muscle soreness at Post-TM or Post-24 h.


The findings of this study suggested that ILSE was the optimal therapeutic measure against decreased shoulder strength or increased shoulder muscle soreness resulting from the repetitive baseball pitching.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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