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Clin Sports Med. 2003 Jul;22(3):593-603, x.

Recurrent athletic head injury: risks and when to retire.

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Neurosurgery Service, Emerson Hospital, 133 Ormac, Concord, MA 01742, USA.


This article focuses on the issues related to recurrent athletic head injuries; specifically, when cumulative exponential injury or the second impact syndrome may be anticipated. Case histories and research studies are used to illustrate the salient points. A signs-and-symptoms checklist for use in concussion evaluation and management is included. Finally, the topic of when to retire after repeated athletic head injuries is discussed and illustrated with a case study.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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