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Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2003 May;33(3):597-613.

Management of transitional cell carcinoma.

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Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211, USA.


Canine TCC of the bladder is a disease for which early detection and multimodality therapy are likely to produce the most favorable results. Urine screening tests are being investigated as tools to permit earlier detection. The possibility of tumor seeding must be considered when obtaining urine for analysis and when performing surgery. Because these tumors tend to be very locally invasive at the time of diagnosis and are likely to metastasize, cures are unlikely. Currently, combination protocols using chemotherapy and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent piroxicam show the most promise in producing tumor responses. Surgery and radiation therapy are useful treatment modalities in select cases. Despite advances in treatment of canine TCC, median survival times reported for prospective clinical trials have never exceeded 1 year, regardless of the treatment modality. Development of accurate tests for early tumor detection could have a significant impact on the success of treatment of this tumor in canine patients.

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