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Neuron. 2003 Jul 3;39(1):13-25.

Basic helix-loop-helix factors in cortical development.

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Division of Neuroscience, Children's Hospital, Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.


Transcription factors with bHLH motifs modulate critical events in the development of the mammalian neocortex. Multipotent cortical progenitors are maintained in a proliferative state by bHLH factors from the Id and Hes families. The transition from proliferation to neurogenesis involves a coordinate increase in the activity of proneural bHLH factors (Mash1, Neurogenin1, and Neurogenin2) and a decrease in the activity of Hes and Id factors. As development proceeds, inhibition of proneural bHLH factors in cortical progenitors promotes the formation of astrocytes. Finally, the formation of oligodendrocytes is triggered by an increase in the activity of bHLH factors Olig1 and Olig2 that may be coupled with a decrease in Id activity. Thus, bHLH factors have key roles in corticogenesis, affecting the timing of differentiation and the specification of cell fate.

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