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J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2003 Jul;23(7):786-810.

Genomics of the periinfarction cortex after focal cerebral ischemia.

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Department of Neurology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267, USA.


Understanding transcriptional changes in brain after ischemia may provide therapeutic targets for treating stroke and promoting recovery. To study these changes on a genomic scale, oligonucleotide arrays were used to assess RNA samples from periinfarction cortex of adult Sprague-Dawley rats 24 h after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusions. Of the 328 regulated transcripts in ischemia compared with sham-operated animals, 264 were upregulated, 64 were downregulated, and 163 (49.7%) had not been reported in stroke. Of the functional groups modulated by ischemia: G-protein-related genes were the least reported; and cytokines, chemokines, stress proteins, and cell adhesion and immune molecules were the most highly expressed. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction of 20 selected genes at 2, 4, and 24 h after ischemia showed early upregulated genes (2 h) including Narp, Rad, G33A, HYCP2, Pim-3, Cpg21, JAK2, CELF, Tenascin, and DAF. Late upregulated genes (24 h) included Cathepsin C, Cip-26, Cystatin B, PHAS-I, TBFII, Spr, PRG1, and LPS-binding protein. Glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, which is involved in mitochondrial reoxidation of glycolysis derived NADH, was regulated more than 60-fold. Plasticity-related transcripts were regulated, including Narp, agrin, and Cpg21. A newly reported lung pathway was also regulated in ischemic brain: C/EBP induction of Egr-1 (NGFI-A) with downstream induction of PAI-1, VEGF, ICAM, IL1, and MIP1. Genes regulated acutely after stroke may modulate cell survival and death; also, late regulated genes may be related to tissue repair and functional recovery.

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