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J Microbiol Methods. 2003 Sep;54(3):295-313.

Experimental models of pulmonary infection.

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Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Erasmus MC, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands.


Experimental models of pulmonary infection are being discussed, focused on various aspects of good experimental design, such as choice of animal species and infecting strain, and route of infection/inoculation techniques (intranasal inoculation, aerosol inoculation, and direct instillation into the lower respiratory tract). In addition, parameters to monitor pulmonary infection are being reviewed such as general clinical signs, pulmonary-associated signs, complication of the pulmonary infection, mortality rate, and parameters after dissection of animals. Examples of pulmonary infection models caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses or parasites in experimental animals with intact or impaired host defense mechanisms are shortly summarized including key-references.

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